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The Flora of al-Andalus.

Being a very non-definitive list, but rather a starting point for investigations of what plants should be considered native to al-Andalus.

    And I'm using a very broad definition of "native". If it grew or was cultivated in al-Andalus at any point, it counts for this list. I will probably include items which were mostly or entirely imported as well, with a note to that effect. The format will be: common name, Latin name, medieval Spanish and/or Arabic names, and a brief description of the uses of said plant. Food items, as well as cultivated garden plants, will probably be listed here. In the case of fruit-bearing trees, the name in Spanish identifies the tree rather than the fruit (e.g. higuera, not higo, for fig).

    (And if the font looks funky, try installing Times New Arabic to view the diacriticals.)

     Almond. al-lawz.
    Apple, manzano (Imamuddin)
    Banana, banano, al-al-mawz. (Imamuddin)
    Bean (Imamuddin citing Ibn al-Bas}s}a>l (Libro de Agricultura))
    Box-wood (Imamuddin)
    Chestnut, castaño (Imamuddin)
    Cinnamon (Imamuddin citing al-Maqqari> in Gayangos)
    Citron, cidrol (Imamuddin)
    Clove (Imamuddin citing al-Maqqari> in Gayangos)
    Cotton. algódon. al-qutn. Cultivated in Spain from the 9th century.
    Daffodil. al-narjis. (
    Daisy. al-uqhuwan. (
    Fig. higuera (Imamuddin)
    Flax. al-kittan.
    Garbanzo. (Imamuddin citing Ibn al-Bas}s}a>l (Libro de Agricultura))
    Gillyflower (Imamuddin citing al-Maqqari> in Gayangos)
    Grape. uva. (Imamuddin)
    Hemp. cañamo, al-shahda>nj. (Imamuddin)
    Iris, blue. al-khurram (
    Jasmin. al-yasimin al-bustani. (
    Lemon. limon. (Imamuddin)
    Lentil. lenteja. (Imamuddin citing Ibn al-Bas}s}a>l (Libro de Agricultura))
    Lily, white. al-susan. (
    Melon. (Imamuddin)
    Mulberry. (Can't have silk worms without it.)
    Myrtle. al-as. (
    Narcisuss. al-bahar. (
    Oak (Imamuddin)
    Oleander. al-difli.
    Olive. olivo. (Imamuddin)
    Orange. naranjo, na>ranj. (Imamuddin)
    Peach (Imamuddin)
    Pear (Imamuddin)
    Pine (Imamuddin)
    Pomegranate. granado, al-rumma>n. (Imamuddin)
    Pomegranate. al-rumman.
    Poppy. al-shaqa'iq. (
    Quince, membrillo (Imamuddin)
    Rice, arroz, al-aruzz. Cultivated in Spain by mid 10 c. (Imamuddin citing Ibn al-Bas{s{a>l (Libro de Agricultura))
    Rose. al-ward. (
    Saffron crocus, azafran, al-za'fra>n. (Imamuddin)
    Spikenard (Imamuddin citing al-Maqqari> in Gayangos)
    Sugar-cane, azucar. Widely cultivated by 10 c. (Imamuddin citing al-Ra>zi>)
    Teak (Imamuddin)
    Violet. banafshaj. (
    Wallflower. al-nammam. (
    Water lily. al-nailufar. (
    Woad. Locally grown dye plant, generally considered inferior to imported indigo.
    Yew. (Imamuddin)

    Many thanks to Sol for her contributions to this list!

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